Without DNS, we would only be able to visit any website directly via IP address, no human-readable anymore
DNS: Basic concept and information
- DNS stands for Domain Name System
- Its purpose is to resolve and translate human-readable website name to IPv4 or IPv6 address
- It’s basically a large Database which resides on various servers around the world, that contains the names and IP address of various host/domains.
- Without DNS, we would only be able to visit any website directly via IP address, no human-readable anymore
- DNS works on both the TCP and UDP Protocols, port 53
How does DNS work?
Whenever you visit a domain such as github.com, the browser’s journey begins »>
Step 1: Request information
- TODO: Type
github.comto address bar of Chrome, it’s a new request for browser
Step 2: DNS cache on Chrome
- TODO: DNS query on chrome’s cache, see
- True: Return IP address of this domain for making a request
- False: Didn’t know it before –> call OS (step3)
Step 3: DNS cache on OS
- TODO: OS receive request from chrome, then check its DNS cache, see
- True: Return IP of github.com for browser
- False: OS didn’t know it before same as browser, OS call the Resolver (Recursive DNS servers)
Step 4: The Resolver on ISP (Internet Service Provider)
- TODO: local OS sends a DNS Query to the Resolver by using UDP Protocol over Port 53, the Resolver will check its cache to find IP for github.com
- True: Return IP address for OS
- False: ISP didn’t know it before same as our OS. ISP will ask the Root server
Step 5: The ROOT servers - see https://www.iana.org/domains/root/servers
- Fact: We have 13 root server for DNS around the world. They don’t know the answer, but they know where to find it.
- TODO: Root look at the first part of request, reading from right to left .com <–
- Direct our request to Top-Level Domain (TLD) name servers for .com, it’s Verisign TLD
- ISP will store TLD information, no need ask the root again.
Step 6: The TLD nameservers
- TODO: The TLD nameservers review the next part of our request - github
- Direct our query to the nameservers responsible for this specific domain
- These Authoritative nameservers are responsible for knowing all the information about a specific domain, which are stored in DNS records
Step 7: The Authoritative nameservers
- TODO: The Resolver (ISP) retrieves the A record for github.com from the authoritative nameservers and stores the record in ISP’s local cache
- More keywords:
time-to-livevalue, Domain Registrar, types of records
Step 8: Receive the answer
- TODO: Resolver returns the A record back to OS
- OS stores the record in its cache, reads the IP address then passes information to Chrome
- Chrome stores the record in its cache
Finally, Chrome opens a connection to the webserver and receives the site.
This entire process, from start to finish, takes only milliseconds to complete.